(PLOS) Pragmatic Language Observation Scale

By Phyllis Newcomer and Donald D. Hammill

(PLOS) Pragmatic Language Observation Scale


Assesses students’ daily classroom spoken language behaviors Quickly assesses spoken language used in classroom settings


8 years to 17 years, 11 months

Admin Time

5 to 10 minutes


Individual Teacher rating with a 5-point response scale


Raw score, percentile rank, and standard score Total score provided as standard score, percentile rank, and descriptive category


Based on a sample of 994 persons in 15 states

Publish Date



Level C required.
About Qualification Levels

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Show details for PLOS Kit

Product #: HM-1


Includes 50 Summary/Rating Forms; Manual


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(PLOS) Pragmatic Language Observation Scale

(PLOS) Pragmatic Language Observation Scale

The PLOS is a 30-item norm-referenced teachers’ rating scale with proven reliability and validity, including evidence of sensitivity and specificity. Its items relate to specific spoken language behaviors readily seen in instructional settings (e.g., “pays attention to oral instructions,” “expresses thoughts clearly”). Teachers or other knowledgeable professionals rate the items on a 5-point scale. The PLOS can be used to: 

  • Support a referral
  • Expand the scope of a comprehensive spoken language evaluation 
  • Compare teachers’ ratings with test results 
  • Help plan interventions 
  • Monitor the effectiveness of interventions 

Results are particularly useful when used as part of a comprehensive spoken language evaluation or as a pre-referral/referral tool.

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