Provides a quick, easy, standardized way to screen for neuropsychological deficits
Adult version, 15 years and up; children's version, ages 5 through 14
A timed word-naming task involving interference
Adult T-scores based on multiple regression equations, using age and education; Child T-scores, by age, based on means and standard deviation
Stroop Color and Word Test
Nonverbal Stroop Card Sorting Test (NSCST)
Stroop Color and Word Test
Stroop Color and Word Test (2012)
BY CHARLES J. GOLDEN, PHD AND SHAWNA M. FRESHWATER
Here is a standardized version of the Stroop Color and Word Test, which maximizes the benefits of this popular measure of cognitive processing.
The Stroop is based on the observation that individuals can read words much faster than they can identify and name colors. The cognitive dimension tapped by the Stroop is associated with cognitive flexibility, resistance to interference from outside stimuli, creativity, and psychopathology—all of which influence the individual’s ability to cope with cognitive stress and process complex input. Used as a screener or as part of a general battery, the test’s quick and easy administration, validity, and reliability make it an especially attractive instrument.
The Stroop features a three-page test booklet. On the first page, the words “RED,” “GREEN,” and “BLUE,” are printed in black ink and repeated randomly in columns. On the second page, the item “XXXX” appears repeatedly in columns, printed in red, green, or blue ink. On the third page (the interference page), the words “RED,” “GREEN,” and “BLUE” are printed in red, green, or blue ink—but in no case do the words and the colors in which they are printed match. For example, the word “BLUE” appears in either red or green ink.
The subject’s task is to look at each page and move down the columns, reading words or naming the ink colors as quickly as possible, within a given time limit. The test yields three scores, based on the number of items completed on each of the three stimulus sheets. In addition, you can calculate an interference score, which is useful in determining the individual’s cognitive flexibility, creativity, and reaction to cognitive stress.
Stroop results can be used in evaluating brain dysfunction, stress, personality, cognition, ADHD, and psychopathology. Because it is brief, requires little education, and is not culturally biased, this unique test is an ideal way to screen for neuropsychological deficits.
Nonverbal Stroop Card Sorting Test (NSCST) (2013)
BY CHRISTOPHER KOCH, PHD, AND GALE ROID, PHD
This 5-minute test assesses cognitive interference in children and adults, ages 3 to 75+. Nationally standardized on more than 1,000 individuals and conormed with the Leiter-3, the NSCST uses nonverbal administration methods to identify process deficits in executive functioning and attention.
The examinee’s task is to sort two sets of cards—one with matching color bars (“color congruent”) and one with nonmatching color bars (“color incongruent”). He or she places each card in the appropriate location on a large, laminated sheet. Sorting speed (cards per second) is calculated, and the difference between congruent and incongruent trials reveals the degree of Stroop interference, or the “Stroop Effect.” This number is then converted to a national percentile or standard score for the examinee’s age group. Significant differences in sorting speeds indicate process deficits.
The NSCST is the first practical, nationally standardized nonverbal Stroop test. It can be used alone or in combination with other measures in a cognitive or neuropsychological battery.
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