Assesses conventional, linguistic, and conceptual aspects of writing, identifying students who write poorly and need special help
9-0 to 17-11 years
7 individually administered subtests, 5 using contrived formats and 2 requiring spontaneous writing
Percentiles, standard scores, age equivalents, and grade equivalents for each subtest; plus composite scores for Overall Writing, Contrived Writing, and Spontaneous Writing
Based on an age- and grade-stratified sample of 2,505 individuals from 18 states, reflecting the demographic characteristics of the U.S. population
Manuals & Resources
(TOWL-4) Test of Written Language 4
BY DONALD D. HAMMILL AND STEPHEN C. LARSEN
New in the TOWL-4:
- Normative data collected in 2006-2007
- Grade-based norms in addition to age-based norms
- Elimination of virtually all floor and ceiling effects
- Attractive new color stimulus pictures
This comprehensive, norm-referenced test of written expression is now available in a fully updated Fourth Edition. The TOWL-4 can be used to:
- Identify students who write poorly and need special help
- Determine writing strengths and weaknesses
- Document progress in special writing programs
- Like the previous edition, the TOWL-4 assesses the conventional, linguistic, and conceptual aspects of writing. It includes seven subtests---five using contrived formats and two requiring spontaneous writing samples.
- Vocabulary - Writing sentences that incorporate given stimulus words
- Spelling - Writing sentences from dictation, making proper use of spelling rules
- Punctuation - Writing sentences from dictation, making proper use of punctuation and capitalization rules
- Logical Sentences - Editing illogical sentences so that they make better sense
- Sentence Combining - Integrating the meaning of short sentences into single, grammatically correct sentences
- Spontaneous-Format Subtests
- Writing a story in response to a stimulus picture and earning points for satisfying specific orthographic and grammatical requirements
- Story Composition - Writing a story that is evaluated for vocabulary, plot, prose, character development, and interest to the reader
- Individually administered in 60 to 90 minutes, the TOWL-4 can be used with students aged 9-0 to 17-11. Equivalent forms (A and B) are available to simplify pre- and posttesting.
The test provides percentiles, standard scores, age equivalents, and grade equivalents for each subtest. In addition, three Composite Scores are available: Overall Writing, Contrived Writing, and Spontaneous Writing. Norms, based on an age- and grade-stratified sample of 2,505 individuals from 18 states, reflect the demographic characteristics of the U.S. population.
Studies reported in the Manual document the predictive validity of the TOWL-4 and demonstrate that the test is unbiased relative to gender and race. The TOWL-4 is extremely helpful to professionals who assess and treat writing deficits.
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