(VMI) Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration
Backed by extensive research, offers an economical way to screen for visual-motor deficits that can lead to learning, behavior and neuropsychological problems
2 years and up
Geometric design copying task
Based on national sample of 1,737 children, aged 2 to 18 years (collected in 2010), and 1,021 adults aged 19 to 100 (collected in 2006); also, age-specific norms reflecting developmental stepping stones from birth through age 6
Manuals & Resources
(VMI) Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration
BY KEITH E. BEERY, PHD AND NORMAN A. BUKTENICA, AND NATASHA A. BEERY
The sixth edition of this highly acclaimed test measures visual–motor integration in children and adults. Backed by decades of research and clinical use, the VMI offers a convenient and economical way to screen for visual–motor deficits that can lead to learning, behavior, and neuropsychological problems. While it is used primarily with young children, the VMI can also be administered to adolescents and adults.
New in the Sixth Edition
The sixth edition remains focused on early childhood education, offering new norms for ages 2 through 18. (Adult norms, for ages 19 and older, have not been updated.) While test content has not changed, the child and adult test forms have been combined, making the VMI more convenient for clinicians who work with people of all ages. You may continue to use your remaining fifth edition test forms, but you will need the new sixth edition Manual to access updated norms and new research on medical, neuropsychological, and educational applications of the VMI.
A Simple Design-Copying Task Appropriate for Young and Old
The VMI helps assess the extent to which individuals can integrate their visual and motor abilities. The test presents the examinee with drawings of 24 geometric forms, arranged in developmental sequence, from less to more complex. The examinee simply copies these forms in the Test Booklet. The test can be individually or group administered in just 10 to 15 minutes. A Short Form, composed of 15 drawings, is often used with 2- to 8-year-old children.
Optional Supplemental Tests for More Detailed Evaluation
Two supplemental tests—the VMI Visual Test and the VMI Motor Test—can each be administered in 5 minutes or less. They are generally given if full- or short-form VMI results indicate a need for further testing. The supplemental tests use the same VMI stimulus forms, so it’s easy to compare results from all three tests, using a profile form provided in the Test Booklet.
Fine-Grained Scoring and a Useful Manual
The VMI scoring system permits fine discrimination between performances, especially at older age levels. The Manual presents very clear scoring criteria, standard scores, percentiles, and teaching suggestions. It also reports recent medical and neuropsychological applications of the VMI.
The sixth edition was standardized in 2010 on a national sample of 1,737 children ages 2 to 18. Adult norms, collected in 2006, are based on a sample of 1,021 individuals from 19 to 100 years of age. In addition, the Manual includes approximately 600 age-specific norms, from birth through age 6. These norms reflect developmental “stepping stones” identified by research. They have proven useful in helping parents understand their child’s current level of development.
Helpful Teaching Materials
Five teaching tools offer activities and exercises that help teachers respond to VMI results:
- Developmental Teaching Activities
This booklet includes more than 250 activities for teachers and parents to use with children from birth to age 6. At each age level, these activities focus on gross motor, fine motor, visual, and visual–motor development, providing a solid foundation for art, academic, and athletic skills. Includes a CD for printing copies of the activities.
- My Book of Shapes
This book includes 100 paper-and-pencil exercises that provide a foundation for learning number and letter shapes. Can be used by preschool and kindergarten teachers as well as parents. Includes a CD for printing copies of the exercises.
- My Book of Letters and Numbers
Includes 100 paper-and-pencil exercises focusing on alphanumeric skills. Used in the second semester of Kindergarten, these exercises help children transfer what they’ve learned about shapes to the formation of letters and numbers. Includes a CD for printing copies of the exercises.
- Developmental Wall Chart
This laminated, full-color wall chart shows basic developmental “Stepping Stones”—a handy reminder for parents and professionals.
- Stepping Stones Parent Checklist
This checklist includes more than 200 key developmental “Stepping Stones.” Parents can use it in making home observations to share with the teacher.
The VMI can be used by psychologists, learning disability specialists, school counselors, teachers, and other professionals to:
- Identify individuals who may have difficulty with visual–motor integration
- Make appropriate referrals for needed services
- Test the effectiveness of educational and other interventions
- Evaluate neuropsychological problems in older adults
- Inform diagnoses of dementia or Alzheimer’s
One of the most well-researched instruments of its kind, the VMI is useful in assessing learning, neuropsychological, behavioral, and emotional disorders. It is time-efficient, culture-free, nonverbal, and appropriate for an extremely wide age range. Unlike many other tests of its kind, the VMI offers item content that is acceptable to preschoolers, children, teens, adults, and the elderly. Neither the very young nor the very old find the test intimidating.
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