EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT STAGES AND BEYOND

Children develop at different rates, so while one child may be walking at nine months, another may not walk until they are two years old. However, no matter the age at which a child finally gets the hang of it, there’s no disputing that children grow very rapidly. Their brains are like sponges, and they grow exponentially in the first few years of life. Physical and mental changes occur from birth through late childhood and adolescence, although they occur less rapidly at the later stages.

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Early Childhood Development and Beyond

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EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT STAGES AND BEYOND

Children develop at different rates, so while one child may be walking at nine months, another may not walk until they are two years old. However, no matter the age at which a child finally gets the hang of it, there’s no disputing that children grow very rapidly. Their brains are like sponges, and they grow exponentially in the first few years of life. Physical and mental changes occur from birth through late childhood and adolescence, although they occur less rapidly at the later stages.

 

Traditional Typical Developmental Milestones

 

4-5 months

  • Looks at a talking adult
  • Calmed by human contact
  • Follows object with eyes

 

6-7 months

  • Holds up head
  • Looks toward someone talking
  • Laughs

 

8-9 months

  • Reaches for things
  • Uses facial expressions
  • rolls from stomach to back and back to stomach

 

10-11 months

  • Creeps or crawls
  • Picks up a dropped object
  • Reacts differently to different people

 

1 year-1 year, 1 month

  • Goes from sitting to standing
  • Shows likes/dislikes
  • Imitates gestures

 

1 year, 2 months-1 year, 3 months

  • Looks where someone points
  • Answers with simple gestures
  • Imitates sounds

 

1 year, 4 months-1 year, 5 months

  • Conveys wanting more
  • Looks at something when it’s mentioned
  • Walks at least four steps

 

1 year, 6 months-1 year, 7 months

  • Stacks three blocks
  • Holds out arms for dressing

 

1 year, 8 months-1 year, 9 months

  • Expresses fondness for relatives
  • Waves “bye-bye” correctly
  • Points to body parts

 

2 years-2 years, 3 months

  • Walks upstairs with support
  • Uses non-verbal cues
  • Follows simple instructions

 

2 years, 8 months-2 years, 11 months

  • Uses vocal sounds or signs for words
  • Understands “one more”
  • Uses pencils or crayons

 

3 years-3 years, 5 months

  • Takes off shoes and socks
  • Uses a fork
  • Points to correct pictures

 

4 years-4 years, 5 months

  • Understands nonverbal gestures
  • Repeats familiar songs
  • Knows dolls represents living creatures

 

4 years, 6 months-4 years, 11 months

  • Prefers playing with others
  • Responds to familiar adults
  • Desires playtime with peers

 

5 years-5 years, 5 months

  • Takes off jacket
  • Plays phone or computer game
  • Sorts things by color, form, or size

 

5 years, 6 months-5 years, 11 months

  • Wipes hands and face
  • Urinates in toilet without help
  • Knows difference between living and nonliving things

 

6 years-6 years, 5 months

  • Throws a ball
  • Copies a circle

 

6 years, 6 months-6 years, 11 months

  • Carries an open container
  • Walks upstairs and downstairs with alternating feet
  • Is aware of other’s feelings

 

7 years-7 years, 11 months

  • Understands cartoon characters are not real
  • Balances on one foot for 10 seconds
  • Says “I’m sorry”

 

8 years-8 years, 11 months

  • Jumps over things
  • Carries on a conversation
  • Keeps working for 30 minutes

 

9 years-9 years, 11 months

  • Reads aloud
  • Does single-digit subtractions
  • Orders from a menu

 

10 years-10 years, 11 months

  • Copes when mad
  • Becomes embarrassed
  • Understands differences between good and bad friends

 

11 years-12 years, 11 months

  • Tells plot of story
  • Makes up a story
  • Carries on a back-and-forth conversation

 

13 years-16 years, 11 months

  • Catches a thrown tennis ball with one hand
  • Rides a bike
  • Gives a presentation

 

17 years-21 years, 11 months

  • Gathers/shares information on the Internet
  • Wants to be part of a peer group
  • Prioritizes assignments

 

 

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DP-4 DEVELOPMENTAL CHART

 

Physical: The child’s ability to perform tasks requiring large- and small-muscle coordination, strength, stamina, flexibility, and sequential motor skills.

  • Physical development is comprised of either gross-motor skills or fine-motor skills.

 

Adaptive Behavior: The child’s competence in activities of daily living

  • This includes the child's ability with tasks such as eating, dressing, self-care, functioning independently, and utilizing modern technology.

 

Social–Emotional: The child’s interpersonal relationship skills, social and emotional understanding, and functional performance in social situations.

  • Specifically, this is the manner in which the child relates to friends, relatives, and nonrelated adults.

 

Cognitive: The skills necessary for successful academic and intellectual functioning.

  • At younger ages, this includes skills that are a prerequisite to scholastic functioning in academic areas such as reading, writing, arithmetic, and computer use and logic. At the preschool and older levels, the skills are more directly tied to actual school curriculum.

 

Communication: The child’s expressive and receptive communication skills, as indicated through both verbal and nonverbal language.

  • The use and understanding of spoken, written, and gestural language are part of communication, as is the ability to use communication devices (e.g., phone, computer) effectively. Skills include those that are either receptive communication and those that are expressive communication.

……………………………………….

 

 

ASSESSING CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

The most effective evaluation of children’s development begins with an assessment that measures the domains of physical, social-emotional, adaptive behavior, cognitive development, and communication. The assessment should have featuring a broad age range, updated norms, growth scores to monitor progress over time, and updated items to reflect changes in society, technology, and culture.

 

THE DEVELOPMENTAL PROFILE 4 ASSESSMENT

  • can identify areas where a child or young person is lagging in any of these developmental milestones.
  • is about assessing, diagnosing and treating those who show signs of developmental disorders.
  • measures developmental domains of

o   physical

o   social-emotional

o   adaptive behavior

o   cognitive development

o   and communication

  • is for clinicians and other helping professionals to assess and evaluate children and young people in their care.
  • identifies developmental strengths and weaknesses from birth to age 21 years, 11 months
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